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The version number for both the entry and the canonical sequence are also displayed. This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by Uni Prot KB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of Uni Prot KB (reviewed) or to the computer-annotated Tr EMBL section (unreviewed).

Upon integration into Uni Prot KB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’. This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into Uni Prot KB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’).

Gene action depends on interaction with the environment.

Green chlorophyll that gives them their green colour.

Most of the mechanisms of heredity, however, remained a mystery until the 19th century, when genetics as a systematic science began.

Genetics arose out of the identification of genes, the fundamental units responsible for heredity.

Early nomadic tribes were interested in the qualities of the animals that they herded and domesticated and, undoubtedly, bred selectively.

If a plant is placed in a dark environment, chlorophyll synthesis stops because the gene is no longer expressed.

All present research in genetics can be traced back to Mendel’s discovery of the laws governing the inheritance of traits. Both aspects of heredity can be explained by genes, the functional units of heritable material that are found within all living cells.

Every member of a species has a set of genes specific to that species. Although scientific evidence for patterns of genetic inheritance did not appear until Mendel’s work, history shows that humankind must have been interested in heredity long before the dawn of civilization.

Genetics may be defined as the study of cell and the ways in which they are transmitted from parents to offspring.

Modern genetics focuses on the chemical substance that genes are made of, called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, and the ways in which it affects the chemical reactions that constitute the living processes within the cell.

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Genetics forms one of the central pillars of biology and overlaps with many other areas such as agriculture, medicine, and biotechnology.

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  1. The hypothesis that all sexually reproducing species experience sexual pleasure is, in itself, quite reasonable – as would be the hypothesis that animals find eating pleasurable. Since the word “pleasure” is quite vague, scientists have tended to focus on orgasms.